There is a great number of scientific research demonstrating Biofeedback as one of the most effective approaches to treating a wide range of mental health conditions that are published in The Journal of Neurotherapy; Journal of Applied Psychophysiology and Bio-feedback; Biological Psychiatry; Child Study Journal; Brain and Cognition; Clinical Neuro-physiology; Neuropsychology; International Journal of Psycho-physiology; Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine; Journal of Head Trauma; and many others.
For a comprehensive bibliography of Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Research, please visit the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR)
1. Moore, N. (2000). A Review of EEG Biofeedback Treatment of Anxiety Disorders. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), pp.1-6.
ABSTRACT: Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of the anxiety disorders. Alpha suppression is also effective.
2. Rice, K., Blanchard, E. and Purcell, M. (1993). Biofeedback treatments of generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary results. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18(2), pp.93-105.
ABSTRACT: All treated subjects showed significant reductions in STAI-Trait Anxiety and psychophysiologic symptoms on the Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist. Only alpha-increase biofeedback subjects showed significant reductions in heart rate reactivity to stressors at a separate psychophysiological testing session. Decreased self-report of anxiety was maintained at 6 weeks post treatment.
3. Atkinson, Amber L.(2017)., "The Effect of Biofeedback on Coping for Patients with Depression" . Honors in the Major Theses. 167.
ABSTRACT: Studies that used biofeedback as an intervention for depression reported significant physical benefits for patients, including decreased heart rate variability and respiratory rate, as well as improved function
4. Vitasari, P., Wahab, M., Herawan, T. and Sinnadurai, S. (2011). Psychophysiological treatment in reduced anxiety with biofeedback training for university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, pp.629-633.
ABSTRACT: From the training, it is shown that after 10th session, students be able to control their heartbeat and respiration to reduce anxiety level. It is concluded that the psychophysiological treatment with biofeedback training is an effective method to reduce anxiety for university students.
5. Ratanasiripong, P., Sverduk, K., Prince, J. and Hayashino, D. (2012). Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety Among College Students. Journal of College Student Development, 53(5), pp.742-749.
ABSTRACT: Results indicated that participants who received biofeedback training and counseling had greater reduction in anxiety symptoms than did participants who received counseling alone. Implications for augmenting biofeedback training to traditional college counseling model are discussed.
Autism and Asperger's
6. Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger??s syndrome. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), pp.159-163.
ABSTRACT: This article reports the pilot study of electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback to improve focusing and decrease anxiety in 10 adolescent boys diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome attending a therapeutic day school
7. Coben, R. and Myers, T. (2009). The Relative Efficacy of Connectivity Guided and Symptom Based EEG Biofeedback for Autistic Disorders. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 35(1), pp.13-23.
ABSTRACT: Our findings suggest that an approach guided by QEEG based connectivity assessment may be more efficacious in the treatment of autism. This permits the targeting and amelioration of abnormal connectivity patterns in the brains of people who are autistic.
8. Coben, R., Sherlin, L., Hudspeth, W., McKeon, K. and Ricca, R. (2014). Connectivity-Guided EEG Biofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence of Neurophysiological Changes. NeuroRegulation, 1(2), pp.109-130.
ABSTRACT: Significant reductions in neural coherence across frontotemporal regions and source localized power changes were evident in frontal, temporal, and limbic regions following this treatment. Concurrently, there were significant improvements on objective neuropsychological tests and parents reported positive gains (decreases in symptoms) following the treatment. These findings further validate EEG biofeedback as a therapeutic modality for autistic children and suggest that changes in coherence anomalies may be related to the mechanism of action.
9. Kouijzer, M., van Schie, H., Gerrits, B., Buitelaar, J. and de Moor, J. (2012). Is EEG-biofeedback an Effective Treatment in Autism Spectrum Disorders? A Randomized Controlled Trial. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 38(1), pp.17-28.
ABSTRACT: EEG-biofeedback seems to be an applicable tool to regulate EEG activity and has specific effects on cognitive flexibility, but it did not result in significant reductions in symptoms of ASD. An important finding was that no nonspecific effects of EEG-biofeedback were demonstrated.
10. Jackson, G. and Eberly, D. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 7(2), pp.211-221.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of intrasubject and intersubject data revealed an overall significant decrease in the number of alpha events and percent of time in alpha wave activity as compared to baseline conditions. Such a decrease indicated facilitated attention by EEG definition
11. Linden, M., Habib, T. and Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 21(3), pp.297-297.
ABSTRACT: Eighteen children with ADD/ADHD, some of whom were also LD, ranging in ages from 5 through 15 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. The significant improvements in intellectual functioning and attentive behaviors might be explained as a result of the attentional enhancement affected by EEG biofeedback training.
12. Tinius, T. and Tinius, K. (2000). Changes After EEG Biofeedback and Cognitive Retraining in Adults with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), pp.27-44.
ABSTRACT: The treatment model used in this study showed significant improvement in the sustained attention of individuals diagnosed with mTBI and ADHD after twenty treatment sessions.
13. Alvarez, J., Granoff, D. and Lundy, A. (2011). Efficacy of EEG Biofeedback in Addressing Cognitive Dysfunction in Cancer Survivors.
ABSTRACT: This study examined the efficacy of EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) in addressing the cognitive sequelae of cancer therapy, commonly known as “chemobrain” or “chemofog.” Neurofeedback, unlike compensatory strategies currently recommended by the National Cancer Institute and major cancer centers, has the potential to restore cognitive function.
14 Uhlmann, C. and Fröscher, W. (2001). Biofeedback treatment in patients with refractory epilepsy: Changes in depression and control orientation. Seizure, 10(1), pp.34-38.
ABSTRACT: Results show that in patients with refractory epilepsy depression is highly correlated with locus of control, in a way that external control orientation relates to high depression scores. Biofeedback is able to improve internal control orientation through personal success mediation.
15. Ratanasiripong, P., Kaewboonchoo, O., Ratanasiripong, N., Hanklang, S. and Chumchai, P. (2015). Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing. Nursing Research and Practice, 2015, pp.1-5.
ABSTRACT: Biofeedback intervention is a cost-effective tool to help graduate students in public health nursing manage their stress, anxiety, and depression
16 Eid, M., Aly, S. and El-Shamy, S. (2016). Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 95(12), pp.921-930.
ABSTRACT: Electromyographic biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA
17 Arsenault, M., Piché, M., Duncan, G. and Rainville, P. (2013). Self-regulation of acute experimental pain with and without biofeedback using spinal nociceptive responses. Neuroscience, 231, pp.102-110.
ABSTRACT: Biofeedback training is an efficient means to gain control over a physiological function typically considered involuntary. Results indicate that participants in all three groups could gain control over RIII-reflex (p<0.001), data-preserve-html-node="true" data-preserve-html-node="true" resulting in the modulation of pain intensity (p<0.001) data-preserve-html-node="true" data-preserve-html-node="true" and pain unpleasantness (p<0.001). data-preserve-html-node="true" data-preserve-html-node="true"
18 Angoules, A., Balakatounis, K., Panagiotopoulou, K., Mavrogenis, A., Mitsiokapa, E. and Papagelopoulos, P. (2011). Effectiveness of Electromyographic Biofeedback in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Pain. Orthopedics.
ABSTRACT: Electromyographic biofeedback may provide pain relief for chronic musculoskeletal pain due to cumulative trauma, and may be proposed as an additional intervention to exercise in patellofemoral pain syndrome and acute sciatic pain.
19 Jensen, M., Barber, J., Romano, J., Hanley, M., Raichle, K., Molton, I., Engel, J., Osborne, T., Stoelb, B., Cardenas, D. and Patterson, D. (2009). Effects of Self-Hypnosis Training and EMG Biofeedback Relaxation Training on Chronic Pain in Persons with Spinal-Cord Injury. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57(3), pp.239-268.
ABSTRACT: Participants in both treatment conditions reported substantial, but similar, decreases in pain intensity from before to after the treatment sessions.
20 Muller, J., Karl, A., Denke, C., Mathier, F., Dittmann, J., Rohleder, N. and Knaevelsrud, C. (2009). RETRACTED ARTICLE: Biofeedback for Pain Management in Traumatised Refugees. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(3), pp.184-190.
ABSTRACT: The authors examined the feasibility and efficacy of short-term cognitive behavioural biofeedback (BF) addressing CP in traumatised refugees. Pre-post effects were small to medium for increased pain management and associated heart rate reactivity but large for coping with pain
21**. Pelletier, K. and Peper, E. (1977). Developing a biofeedback model: Alpha eeg feedback as a means for pain control. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25(4), pp.361-371.
ABSTRACT: 3 adept meditators voluntarily inserted steel needles into their bodies while physiological measures (EEG, EMG, GSR, EKG, and respiratbn) were recorded. Although each adept used a different passive attention technique, none reported pain. During the insertion, 2 of the 3 Ss increased their alpha EEG activity
22. Ham, L. and Packard, R. (1996). A retrospective, follow-up study of biofeedback-assisted relaxation therapy in patients with posttraumatic headache. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 21(2), pp.93-104.
ABSTRACT: A stepwise regression analysis found that chronicity of the disorder and number of treatment sessions significantly affected response to treatment. Data suggest that biofeedback-assisted relaxation should at least be considered when planning treatment strategies for posttraumatic headache.
23. Stokes, D. and Lappin, M. (2010). Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 6(1), p.9.
ABSTRACT: These non-invasive interventions may show promise for treating treatment-refractory migraine and for preventing the progression from episodic to chronic migraine.
24. Pagé, I., Marchand, A., Nougarou, F., O'Shaughnessy, J. and Descarreaux, M. (2015). Neuromechanical Responses After Biofeedback Training in Participants With Chronic Low Back Pain: An Experimental Cohort Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 38(7), pp.449-457.
ABSTRACT: Biofeedback training led to decreases in lumbar paraspinal muscle activity in full trunk flexion and increases in lumbopelvic range of motion in participants with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Although the neuromechanical changes were mostly observed at the early stage of the program, the presence of a decrease in the fear of movement suggests that the participants' initially limited ROMs may have been modulated by fear avoidance behaviors.
25. Tan, G., Rintala, D., Jensen, M., Fukui, T., Smith, D. and Williams, W. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis compared with biofeedback for adults with chronic low back pain. European Journal of Pain, 19(2), pp.271-280.
ABSTRACT: The findings indicate that two sessions of self-hypnosis training with audio recordings for home practice may be as effective as eight sessions of hypnosis treatment. If replicated in other patient samples, the findings have important implications for the application of hypnosis treatment for chronic pain management.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
26. Nelson, D. and Esty, M. (2015). Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans. Military Medicine, 180(10), pp.e1111-e1114.
ABSTRACT: Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels
27. Rosaura Polak, A., Witteveen, A., Denys, D. and Olff, M. (2015). Breathing Biofeedback as an Adjunct to Exposure in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Hastens the Reduction of PTSD Symptoms: A Pilot Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 40(1), pp.25-31.
ABSTRACT: Based on previous studies (Zucker et al. 2009; Lande et al. 2010), we hypothesize that both breathing biofeedback and treatment as usual will lead to a significant decrease of PTSD symptoms when compared to pre treatment PTSD symptoms.
28. Bell, J. (1979). The use of EEG theata biofeedback in the treatment of a patient with sleep-onset insomnia. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 4(3), pp.229-236.
ABSTRACT: A significant increase in theta density was accompanied by reports of a decrease in sleep latency and an increase in total sleep time. This improvement was maintained after withdrawal of medication and at 3-month follow-up.
Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Coma, and Cerebral Palsy
29. Yasuda, K., Saichi, K., Kaibuki, N., Harashima, H. and Iwata, H. (2018). Haptic-based perception-empathy biofeedback system for balance rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke: Concepts and initial feasibility study. Gait & Posture, 62, pp.484-489.
ABSTRACT: Post training, patients demonstrated marginally reduced postural spatial variability (i.e., 95% confidence elliptical area), and clinical balance performance significantly improved at post-training
30. Kim, S., Rath, J., Zemon, V., Cavallo, M., McCraty, R., Sostre, A. and Foley, F. (2018). Problem solving, biofeedback, and severe brain injury: The moderating role of positive affect. Rehabilitation Psychology, 63(1), pp.148-154.
ABSTRACT: Participants who had the most positive emotions made the most gains in the HRV biofeedback training and performed better posttreatment on a test designed to measure problem-solving ability. Results indicate that positive affect can improve cognition, specifically mental flexibility and abstract thinking
31. Park, Y. and Kim, J. (2017). Effects of kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback on balance and lower extremity muscle activation in stroke patients. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 29(8), pp.1390-1393.
ABSTRACT: This study showed that closed kinetic chain exercise using EMG-biofeedback is effective for improving balance ability and lower extremity muscle activation in stroke patients. .
32 Thatcher, R. (2000). EEG Operant Conditioning (Biofeedback) and Traumatic Brain Injury. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), pp.38-44.
ABSTRACT: A review is presented of the currently sparse literature about EEG operant conditioning or biofeedback as a treatment to reduce symptomology and patient complaints following a traumatic brain injury. The paper also evaluates the general use of quantitative EEG (QEEG) to assess traumatic brain injury and to facilitate EEG biofeedback treatment.
33. Nelson, D. and Esty, M. (2015). Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans. Military Medicine, 180(10), pp.e1111-e1114.
ABSTRACT: Comparisons of pre- and post-treatment questionnaire assessments revealed notable decreases for all symptoms, suggesting improvements across the broad domains of cognition, pain, sleep, fatigue, and mood/emotion, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, as well as for overall activity levels. Findings suggest FNS treatment may be of potential benefit for the partial amelioration of symptoms, even in some individuals for whom symptoms have been present for decades.
34 Heymen, S., Scarlett, Y., Jones, K., Ringel, Y., Drossman, D. and Whitehead, W. (2007). Randomized, Controlled Trial Shows Biofeedback to be Superior to Alternative Treatments for Patients with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia-Type Constipation. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, 50(4), pp.428-441.
ABSTRACT: Biofeedback patients had significantly more unassisted bowel movements at follow-up compared to Placebo (p = .005), with a trend favoring biofeedback. Biofeedback patients reduced pelvic floor electromyography during straining significantly more than patients on the medication (p < 0.001).
+ MICROCURRENT THERAPY
There is a great number of research demonstrating Microcurrent Therapy as an effective approach to treating a wide range of physical and mental health conditions.
For a comprehensive bibliography of Microcurrent Therapy Research, please visit the links below:
1. LU Ling, HU Jun. A Comparative study of anxiety disorders treatment with Paroxetine in combination with cranial electrotherapy stimulation therapy. Medical Innovation of China, 11(08):080-082, 2014
ABSTRACT:The results of this study showed that six weeks of combining paroxetine with daily CES treatments, yielded significant improvement over paroxetine alone on the HAM-A scale from baseline to 6 weeks out.
2. Kolesos ON, Osionwo HO, Akkhigbe. The role of relaxation therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of dental anxiety in Nigeria. ISOR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2013; 10(4): 51-57
ABSTRACT:The combination of relaxation and cranial electrotherapy stimulation significantly reduced dental anxiety and found beneficial for alleviating dental anxiety among dental patients.
3. Strentzsch, Julie A. An examination of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on alpha-amylase levels, cortisol levels and state-trait anxiety scores in the chronically mentally ill. Doctoral Dissertation, Saint Mary’s University, San Antonio, Texas, 2008
ABSTRACT:A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and 38 subjects completed all post-test requirements; active CES group (N=15), sham group (N=15). The active CES group had significantly lower scores on the State Anxiety Index (SAI), indicating less state anxiety, than the sham group (P=.02, d = -.41) or control group.
4. Voris, Marshall D. An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles. Delos Mind/Body Institute Newsletter. 1995. Dallas and Corpus Cristi, Texas
ABSTRACT:A total of 105 subjects completed the study consisting of an active CES group (N= 38), sham group (N=35). The active CES group had significantly lower anxiety scores on the State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) compared to sham group (p=.0001, d = -1.60).
5. Kim, Hyun Jung, Kim, Woon Young, Lee, Yoon Sook, Chang, Moon Seok, Kim, Jae Hwan, and Park, Young Cheol The Effect of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation on Preoperative Anxiety and Hemodynamic Responses. Korean Journal ofAnesthesiology. 2008; 55(6): 657- 661
ABSTRACT:Sixty (60) adults between the ages of 18-65 were subjects in this study. The CES group had lower anxiety scores on the Likert scale compared to the control group at the endpoint of the study (p < 0.01, d = -.88).
6. Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013 Dec;14(4):327-335
ABSTRACT:Those individuals using the active CES device had a greater decrease in average pain (p 1⁄4 .023), fatigue (p 1⁄4 .071), and sleep disturbance (p 1⁄4 .001) than individuals using the sham device or those receiving usual care alone over time. Addition- ally, individuals using the active CES device had improved functional status versus the sham device and UC groups over time (p 1⁄4 .028).
7. Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
ABSTRACT:The active CES group had significant findings on 8 of the 11 variables compared to the sham group: significantly lower anxiety scores (p=0.04, d = -.60), higher quality of sleep scores (p = 0.02,d = .45), lower pain scores (p = .004, d = .65), higher feelings of well-being scores (p = .007, d = .73)
8. Lande, R. Gregory and Gragnani, Cynthia. Efficacy of cranial electric stimulation for the treatment of insomnia: A randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(1):8-13, 2013
The researchers identified a nearly significant increase in total time slept after three cranial electric stimulation treatments among all study subjects
9. Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. E-published ahead of print, September, 2017.
ABSTRACT:In this preliminary study we found that the use of CES was safe and feasible in ACP. The use of CES was associated with significant improvement of depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep scores.
10. Barclay TH, Barclay RD. A clinical trial of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety and comorbid depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 164:171-177. Presented at the American Psychological Association National Conference, Honolulu, HI, July 2013
Analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between the active CES group and the sham CES group on anxiety (p1⁄40.001, d1⁄40.94) and on depression (p1⁄40.001, d1⁄40.78) from baseline to endpoint of study in favor of the active CES group. CES significantly decreases anxiety and comorbid depression. Subjects reported no adverse events during the study.
11. Mellen, Ronald R. and Mackey, Wade. Reducing Sheriff’s Officers’ Symptoms of Depression Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES): A Control Experimental Study. The Correctional Psychologist. 2009; 41(1):9-15
ABSTRACT: The active CES group had significantly lower depression scores on the BDI (p<0.05) data-preserve-html-node="true" and the BSI-D (p< 0.01) than the sham group. The finding suggested a broad trend toward reductions in the full range of clinical symptoms
12. Chen Yixin, Yu Lin, Zhang Jiuping, Li Lejia, Chen Tunong, Chen Yi. Results of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to children with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry. 2007; 19(4):203-205
ABSTRACT: CES is effective for treating children with MAD. CES can affect brain electrical activity mapping of occipital lobe.
13. Yennurajalingam S, Kang D-H, Hwu W-J, Padhye NS, Masino C, Dibaj SS, Liu DD, Williams JL, Lu Z, Bruera E. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for the management of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and pain in patients with advanced cancer: a preliminary study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. E-published ahead of print, September, 2017
ABSTRACT: In this preliminary study we found that the use of CES was safe and feasible in ACP. The use of CES was associated with significant improvement of depression, anxiety, pain, and sleep scores. These findings support further studies of CES in ACP for symptom control.
14. Lu XY, Wang AH, Li Y, Zhang JS, Liu BX. Safety and effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in treating children with emotional disorders. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation. 2005; 9(8):96-7.
ABSTRACT: CES is a new technique for the treatment of emotional disorders; it has the advantages of fast effect, significant efficacy, as well as the characteristics of accumulative effect, fewer relapse and no side effects.
15. Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Jante E., Kinser, Patricia A., and Bourguignon, Cheryl. Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia. Pain Management Nursing. 2013 Dec;14(4):327-335
Those individuals using the active CES device had a greater decrease in average pain (p 1⁄4 .023), fatigue (p 1⁄4 .071), and sleep disturbance (p 1⁄4 .001) than individuals using the sham device or those receiving usual care alone over time. Addition- ally, individuals using the active CES device had improved functional status versus the sham device and UC groups over time (p 1⁄4 .028).
16. Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B. The Treatment of Fibromyalgia with Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2001; 7(2):72-78. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
ABSTRACT: The active CES group had significant findings on 8 of the 11 variables compared to the sham group: significantly lower anxiety scores (p=0.04, d = -.60), higher quality of sleep scores (p = 0.02,d = .45), lower pain scores (p = .004, d = .65), higher feelings of well-being scores (p = .007, d = .73)
17. Taylor, Ann Gill, Anderson, Joel G., Riedel, Shannon L., Lewis, Janet E. and Bourguignon, Cheryl. A randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study of the effects of cranial electrical stimulation on activity in brain pain processing regions in individuals with fibromyalgia. Explore. 2013; 9(1):32-40
The observed decrease in activation in the pain processing regions may indicate a decrease in neural activity in these regions that may be related to decreased pain. This is the first randomized, controlled trial of CES in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia to report functional magnetic resonance im- aging data.
18. Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana, Jensen, Mark P., Richards, J. Scott, Holmes, Sally Ann, Parachuri, Rama, Lashgari-Saegh, Shamsi and Price, Larry R. Efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: a multi-site randomized controlled trial with a secondary 6-month open-label phase. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 2011; 34(3):285-296.
On average, CES appears to have provided a small but statistically significant improvement in pain intensity and pain interference with few troublesome side effects. Individual results varied from no pain relief to a great deal of relief.
19. Tan, Gabriel, Rintala, Diana H., Thornby, John, Yang, June, Wade, Walter, and Vasilev, Christine. Using Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation to Treat Pain Associated with Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 2006; 43(4):461-474. Presented at the South Central VA Health Care Network’s Pain Management Initiative 2nd Annual Pain Management Symposium: Campaign Against Pain. Jackson, Mississippi, April 7, 2006
ABSTRACT: Cranial electro- therapy stimulation (CES), a noninvasive technique that deliv- ers a microcurrent to the brain via ear clip electrodes, has been shown to effectively treat several neurological and psy- chiatric disorders. The results suggest that CES can effectively treat chronic pain in persons with SCI
There is a great number of scientific research demonstrating Neurofeedback as one of the most effective approaches to treating a wide range of mental health conditions that are published in The Journal of Neurotherapy; Journal of Applied Psychophysiology and Bio-feedback; Biological Psychiatry; Child Study Journal; Brain and Cognition; Clinical Neuro-physiology; Neuropsychology; International Journal of Psycho-physiology; Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine; Journal of Head Trauma; and many others.
For a comprehensive bibliography of Neurofeedback and Biofeedback Research, please visit the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR)
1. Kaiser, D. and Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on Variables of Attention in a Large Multi-Center Trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), pp.5-15.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback training produced significant improvement in attentiveness, impulse control, and response variability. Significant clinical improvement in one or more measures was seen in eighty-five percent of those subjects with moderate pre-training deficits.
2. Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M. and Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: The Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3), pp.180-189.
ABSTRACT: In line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered "Efficacious and Specific" (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.
3. Lubar, J., Swartwood, M., Swartwood, J. and O'Donnell, P. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 20(1), pp.83-99.
ABSTRACT: This study is significant in that it examines the effects of neurofeedback training on both objective and subjective measures under relatively controlled conditions. Our findings corroborate and extend previous research, indicating that neurofeedback training can be an appropriate and efficacious treatment for children with ADHD.
4. Barabasz, A. and Barabasz, M. (1995). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder:. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), pp.1-10.
ABSTRACT: Neurotherapy (or EEG feedback), which addresses the frontal lobe dysfunction, has shown significant, long-term results, by teaching patients to normalize their brainwave responses to stimuli.
5. Nash, J. (2000). Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Neurotherapy. Clinical Electroencephalography, 31(1), pp.30-37.
ABSTRACT: Neurotherapy for ADHD offers an effective alternate for patients whose treatment is limited by side effects, poor medication response and in cases in which the patients and/or their parents refuse to consider medications. Studies indicate clinical improvement is largely related to measurable improvements in the EEG signature, evidenced by declining theta/beta ratios over frontal/central cortex and/or reduced theta/alpha band amplitudes.
6. HAMMOND, D. (2005). Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), pp.105-123.
ABSTRACT: A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns.
7. Keller, I. (2001). Neurofeedback Therapy of Attention Deficits in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), pp.19-32.
ABSTRACT: After ten sessions the analyses of beta activity showed that eight patients were able to increase their beta activity while the remaining four patients showed a decrease of beta activity. Mean duration of beta activity was prolonged about 50% after training. Patients who received NFT improved significantly more in the attention tests than control patients.
8. Mennella, R., Patron, E. and Palomba, D. (2017). Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 92, pp.32-40.
ABSTRACT: Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings
9. McKnight, J. and Fehmi, L. (2001). Attention and Neurofeedback Synchrony Training: Clinical Results and Their Significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1-2), pp.45-61.
ABSTRACT: Analysis of 132 cases using this dual approach found that more than 90 percent of the patients reported an alleviation of symptoms. These positive results were found with stress-induced headache, joint pain, and gastrointestinal disease.
10. White, E., Groeneveld, K., Tittle, R., Bolhuis, N., Martin, R., Royer, T. and Fotuhi, M. (2017). Erratum to: Combined Neurofeedback and Heart Rate Variability Training for Individuals with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression: A Retrospective Study. NeuroRegulation, 4(2), pp.99-99.
ABSTRACT: We present evidence that NFB+HRV training may provide an effective, nonpharmaceutical intervention to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in children and adults. Additionally, NFB+HRV training may improve EEG, blood pressure, resting breathing rate, and HRV.
Autism and Asperger's
11. Baruth, J., Casanova, M., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Mathai, G., Sears, L. and Sokhadze, E. (2010). Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), pp.179-194.
ABSTRACT: We proposed that 'slow' rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD treatment and has shown significant benefits in treating core symptoms of ASD with few, if any side effects.
12. Coben, R., Mohammad-Rezazadeh, I. and Cannon, R. (2014). Using quantitative and analytic EEG methods in the understanding of connectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a theory of mixed over- and under-connectivity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8.
ABSTRACT: Neuroimaging technologies and research has shown that autism is largely a disorder of neuronal connectivity. While advanced work is being done with fMRI, MRI-DTI, SPECT and other forms of structural and functional connectivity analyses, the use of EEG for these purposes is of additional great utility.
13. Knezevic, B., Thompson, L. and Thompson, M. (2010). Pilot Project to Ascertain the Utility of Tower of London Test to Assess Outcomes of Neurofeedback in Clients with Asperger's Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(1), pp.3-19.
ABSTRACT: Following the training, clients with AS were able to plan more efficiently, inhibit premature responses, and shift set with greater ease, as well as solve problems more quickly as measured by their ToLDX scores. On CPTs, clients with AS showed a trend toward less impulsivity.
14. Kouijzer, M., de Moor, J., Gerrits, B., Buitelaar, J. and van Schie, H. (2009). Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(2), pp.496-501.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback mediated suppression of theta power is supposed to promote more flexible functioning of the brain by enhancing activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and improving flexibility of activation in the default mode network supporting the improvement of executive functions and theory of mind in ASD.
15. Pineda, J., Brang, D., Hecht, E., Edwards, L., Carey, S., Bacon, M., Futagaki, C., Suk, D., Tom, J., Birnbaum, C. and Rork, A. (2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2(3), pp.557-581.
ABSTRACT: Two electrophysiological studies tested the hypothesis that operant conditioning of mu rhythms via neurofeedback training can renormalize mu suppression, an index of mirror neuron activity, and improve behavior in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders
16. Ros, T., Moseley, M., Bloom, P., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L. and Gruzelier, J. (2009). Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, 10(1), p.87.
ABSTRACT: By enabling individuals to self-regulate their brainwave activity in the field of optimal performance in healthy individuals, neurofeedback has been found to improve cognitive and artistic performance.
17. Lecomte, G. and Juhel, J. (2011). The Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Memory Performance in Elderly Subjects. Psychology, 02(08), pp.846-852.
ABSTRACT: Results showed that the members of the Neurofeedback group learned to increase the spectral power of the alpha frequency range as well as the alpha/thêta ratio, and that compared with the members of the two other groups, neurofeedback training resulted in a more pronounced decrease, albeit without any relation to changes in EEG activity and the level of stress and anxiety of participants undergoing such training
18. Becerra, J., Fernández, T., Harmony, T., Caballero, M., Garcia, F., Fernández-Bouzas, A., Santiago-Rodriguez, E. and Prado-Alcalá, R. (2006). Follow-Up Study of Learning-Disabled Children Treated with Neurofeedback or Placebo. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 37(3), pp.198-203.
ABSTRACT: This report is a 2-year follow-up to a previous study describing positive behavioral changes and a spurt of EEG maturation with theta/alpha neurofeedback (NFB) training in a group of Learning Disabled (LD) children. In a control paired group, treated with placebo, behavioral changes were not observed and the smaller maturational EEG changes observed were easily explained by increased age.
19. Ros, T., Théberge, J., Frewen, P., Kluetsch, R., Densmore, M., Calhoun, V. and Lanius, R. (2013). Mind over chatter: Plastic up-regulation of the fMRI salience network directly after EEG neurofeedback. NeuroImage, 65, pp.324-335.
ABSTRACT: Our findings provide neurobehavioral evidence for the brain's exquisite functional plasticity, and for a temporally direct impact of NFB on a key cognitive control network, suggesting a promising basis for its use to treat cognitive disorders under physiological conditions.
20. Hanslmayr, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M. and Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing Individual Upper Alpha Power by Neurofeedback Improves Cognitive Performance in Human Subjects. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(1), pp.1-10.
ABSTRACT: Training success (extent of NFT-induced increase in upper alpha power) was positively correlated with the improvement in cognitive performance. Furthermore, the EEG of NFT responders showed a significant increase in reference upper alpha power.
21. Baehr, E., Rosenfeld, J. and Baehr, R. (1997). The Clinical Use of An Alpha Asymmetry Protocol in the Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(3), pp.10-23.
ABSTRACT: Using an Alpha Asymmetry protocol, the purpose of this training was to determine if depression could be alleviated when the subjects learned to increase the activation of the left hemisphere and/ or decrease the activation of the right hemisphere. The results suggest that Alpha Asymmetry neurofeedback training may be an effective adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of certain types of mood disorders.
22. Cheon, E., Koo, B. and Choi, J. (2015). The Efficacy of Neurofeedback in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: An Open Labeled Prospective Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 41(1), pp.103-110.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback treatment could improve depressive symptoms significantly. In addition, anxiety symptoms and clinical illness severity decreased significantly after neurofeedback treatment. Despite its several limitations, such as, small sample size and lack of a control group, this study suggested neurofeedback has significant effects in patients with major depressive disorder
23. Cantor, D. and Stevens, E. (2009). QEEG Correlates of Auditory-Visual Entrainment Treatment Efficacy of Refractory Depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(2), pp.100-108.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of auditory-visual EEG entrainment (AVE) at a 14 Hz (beta) frequency to decrease symptoms of depression with corresponding changes in neurophysiology. The findings indicate that AVE therapy may be a viable nonmedication therapeutic intervention.
24. Young, K., Siegle, G., Zotev, V., Phillips, R., Misaki, M., Yuan, H., Drevets, W. and Bodurka, J. (2017). Randomized Clinical Trial of Real-Time fMRI Amygdala Neurofeedback for Major Depressive Disorder: Effects on Symptoms and Autobiographical Memory Recall. American Journal of Psychiatry, 174(8), pp.748-755.
ABSTRACT: rtfMRI-nf training to increase the amygdala hemodynamic response to positive memories significantly decreased depressive symptoms and increased the percent of specific memories recalled on an autobiographical memory test. These data support a role of the amygdala in recovery from depression.
25. Hammond, D. (2000). Neurofeedback Treatment of Depression with the Roshi. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(2), pp.45-56.
ABSTRACT: The very first Roshi session produced positive changes, and within five sessions the patient reported feeling less depressed and more energetic. At the conclusion of thirty training sessions, objective testing documented dramatic reductions in depression, somatic symptoms, over emotionality, anxiety, rumination, and fatigue. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
26. Hammond, D. (2003). QEEG-Guided Neurofeedback in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 7(2), pp.25-52.
ABSTRACT: An MMPI was ad- ministered pre-post to one patient, and she showed dramatic improve- ments not only in OCD symptoms, but also in depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms, and in becoming extroverted rather than introverted and withdrawn.
27. Barzegary, L., Yaghubi, H. and Rostami, R. (2011). The effect of QEEG- guided neurofeedback treatment in decreasing of OCD symptoms. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, pp.2659-2662.
ABSTRACT: This research proves that neurofeedback training is an effective method for decreasing OCD symptoms. This research's result is consistent to Hommnd's studies (2003, 2004). Then, we can use neurefeedback for decreasing obsession and compulsion.
28. Sürmeli, T. and Ertem, A. (2011). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the Efficacy of qEEG-Guided Neurofeedback Treatment: A Case Series. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 42(3), pp.195-201.
ABSTRACT: According to follow-up interviews conducted with them and/or their family members 19 of the subjects maintained the improvements in their OCD symptoms. This study provides good evidence for the efficacy of NF treatment in OCD. The results of this study encourage further controlled research in this area.
29. Kunola, O. and Malley, O. (2007). EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROFEEDBACK TRAINING IN CHRONIC INSOMNIA. 30th ed. [ebook] SLEEP 2007;30(Supplement):A265. Available at: https://neuroptimal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ZIN_okunola_insom_abstract_OMalley.pdf.
ABSTRACT: Early neurofeedback (EEG biofeedback) training protocols have been shown to be effective therapy for insomnia (Hauri et al 1982) and it is an integral component of CBT for insomnia.
30. Hoedlmoser, Pecherstorfer, Gruber, Anderer, Doppelmayr, Klimesch and Schabus (2008). Instrumental Conditioning of Human Sensorimotor Rhythm (12-15 Hz) and Its Impact on Sleep as Well as Declarative Learning. Sleep.
ABSTRACT: Relative SMR amplitude increased over 10 instrumental conditioning sessions (in the experimental group only) and this "shaping of one's own brain activity" improved subsequent declarative learning and facilitated the expression of 12-15 Hz spindle oscillations during sleep. Most interestingly, these electrophysiological changes were accompanied by a shortened sleep onset latency.
31. Berner, I., Schabus, M., Wienerroither, T. and Klimesch, W. (2006). The Significance of Sigma Neurofeedback Training on Sleep Spindles and Aspects of Declarative Memory. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(2), pp.97-114.
ABSTRACT: We conclude that the short NFT before sleep was not sufficient to efficiently enhance phasic spindle activity and/or to influence memory processing. NFT was, however, successful in increasing sigma power, presumably because sigma NFT effects become more easily evident in actually trained frequency bands than in associated phasic spindle activity
Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Coma, and Cerebral Palsy
32. Kober, S., Schweiger, D., Witte, M., Reichert, J., Grieshofer, P., Neuper, C. and Wood, G. (2015). Specific effects of EEG based neurofeedback training on memory functions in post-stroke victims. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 12(1).
ABSTRACT: Post-stroke victims with memory deficits could benefit from NF training as much as healthy controls. The used NF training protocols (SMR, Upper Alpha) had specific as well as unspecific effects on memory. Hence, NF might offer an effective cognitive rehabilitation tool improving memory deficits of stroke survivors.
33. Reichert, J., Kober, S., Schweiger, D., Grieshofer, P., Neuper, C. and Wood, G. (2016). Shutting Down Sensorimotor Interferences after Stroke: A Proof-of-Principle SMR Neurofeedback Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.
ABSTRACT: Neurofeedback can be successfully applied in a stroke patient and in healthy elderly persons. We suggest that SMR neurofeedback leads to a shutting-down of sensorimotor interferences which benefits semantic encoding and retrieval.
34. Bearden TS, e. (2003). Neurofeedback training for a patient with thalamic and cortical infarctions. - PubMed - NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12964455.
ABSTRACT: Over the course of the training, significant reductions in theta amplitude occurred from the training sites as assessed from the post-session baseline periods. Posttraining, a relative normalization of the QEEG was observed from the left posterior head region.
35. Renton, T., Tibbles, A. and Topolovec-Vranic, J. (2015). Neurofeedback as a Form of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Following Stroke: A Systematic Review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(12), p.e27.
ABSTRACT: Overall, modest positive improvements to a number of cognitive domains were identified following NFT initiation in a stroke population
36. Nelson, D. and Esty, M. (2012). Neurotherapy of Traumatic Brain Injury/Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 24(2), pp.237-240.
ABSTRACT: The Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS), a novel variant of EEG biofeedback, was adapted for intervention with seven treatment-refractory Afghanistan/Iraq war veterans, and brought about significant decreases in bothersome neurobehavioral and posttraumatic stress symptoms. FNS may help ameliorate mixed trauma spectrum syndromes.
38. Kim, S., Rath, J., Zemon, V., Cavallo, M., McCraty, R., Sostre, A. and Foley, F. (2018). Problem solving, biofeedback, and severe brain injury: The moderating role of positive affect. Rehabilitation Psychology, 63(1), pp.148-154.
ABSTRACT: Participants who had the most positive emotions made the most gains in the HRV biofeedback training and performed better posttreatment on a test designed to measure problem-solving ability. Results indicate that positive affect can improve cognition, specifically mental flexibility and abstract thinking. Addressing factors that shape negative affect such as irrational beliefs and self-doubt is an important target for therapeutic intervention even in those with severe, chronic deficits.